Evidence of human-to-dog transmission of monkeypox virus

Human monkeypox virus is spreading in Europe and the USA among individuals who have not travelled to endemic areas.

On July 23, 2022, monkeypox was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.

Human-to-human transmission of monkeypox virus usually occurs through close contact with the lesions, body fluids, and respiratory droplets of infected people or animals.

The possibility of sexual transmission is being investigated, as the current outbreak appears to be concentrated in men who have sex with men and has been associated with unexpected anal and genital lesions.

Whether domesticated cats and dogs could be a vector for monkeypox virus is unknown. Here we describe the first case of a dog with confirmed monkeypox virus infection that might have been acquired through human transmission.

Two men who have sex with men attended Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, on June 10, 2022 (appendix). One man (referred to as patient 1 going forward) is Latino, aged 44 years, and lives with HIV with undetectable viral loads on antiretrovirals; the second man (patient 2) is White, aged 27 years, and HIV-negative. The men are non-exclusive partners living in the same household. They each signed a consent form for the use of their clinical and biological data, and for the publication of anonymised photographs. The men had presented with anal ulceration 6 days after sex with other partners. In patient 1, anal ulceration was followed by a vesiculopustular rash on the face, ears, and legs; in patient 2, on the legs and back. In both cases, rash was associated with asthenia, headaches, and fever 4 days later (figure A, B).

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