VECTOR – Boston Children’s Hospital:
Today, stories of polio may seem like echoes from far-away history to those born after 1979, the year that polio was eradicated in the U.S. Since then, it has been customary for children to receive four doses of the polio vaccine to protect them from ever contracting the terrifying disease also known as “infantile paralysis.”
Polio, however, still afflicts people in some areas of the world today. It causes muscle wasting and — in the most severe cases — can completely rob a person of his or her ability to move or breathe, resulting in death.
In the U.S., research efforts to create a polio vaccine lasted much of the 20th century. Although the virus was thriving and spreading among people, researchers repeatedly failed at getting poliovirus to survive in culture.
Then, one of the most crucial breaks in the fight against polio occurred in a Boston Children’s Hospital laboratory in 1949, during the heyday of polio outbreaks. Three Boston Children’s scientists researching a whole host of diseases including mumps, influenza and chicken pox managed — unintentionally, ironically enough— to discover the first reliable method for culturing poliovirus in human skin and muscle cells. Their findings opened the door for development of the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines that would deliver the U.S. from the grips of polio.